A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. A computer as shown in Fig. These are 1 it accepts data or instructions by way of input, 2 it stores data, 3 it can process data as required by the user, 4 it gives results in the form of output, and 5 it controls all operations inside a computer.
Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data.
Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing. Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. This storage unit or the primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. It provides space for storing data and instructions.
Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit CPU takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided.
It is then sent back to the storage unit. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form.
Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing. Control: The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed. Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer. The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit.
The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored.
The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously.
You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamentalcomputer software, Computer programming, and web apps.
Basic block diagram of analog communication system
For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.This is more of an analog circuit. Here's some links to analog computers, specific and general purpose. The computing in empty space concept is particularly interesting. One of these is very practical with a huge speedup on numerical computation on the cheap.
Wikipedia has links to old ones below. The mechanical ones trip me out. One hardware engineer that used to post on Schneier's blog told us how most engineers and tools did digital with little understanding of analog or especially combinations of the two "mixed signal". So, he would put parts of the critical algorithms in analog with odd tie-ins to the digital side. Integrating their I.
A trick worth remembering. The Vintage Computing Festival in Berlin which ran this weekend had a room dedicated to analog computers, most of them still working, with instructors, demo programs and one could even play around with them. A 'program' is basically a set of wires that connect blocks like oscillators, integrators, filters, etc I was told that this was mainly used to simulate how complex real-world industrial systems like coal energy plant components would behave under extreme conditions.
Animats on Oct 4, Of course they had noise problems. They were using a solderless breadboard. Analog computers require shielding, good ground planes, and bypass caps on power at each IC. I once had two timers, set up as oscillators, on a solderless breadboard, and they'd phase-lock just from inductive coupling if they were near the same frequency.
Without bypass caps at each IC, they'd phase-lock even when the frequencies weren't close, at some ratio like When the big power transistor in a switches, it introduces a transient, which gets into the input signals. Fun to watch on a scope. While you can build analog differentiators, they're so noise-sensitive that they're almost useless. Combined differentiators and low-pass filters can work, but a pure differentiator tries to track the slope of every tiny noise event.
Analog computing is usually all integrators, summers, and multipliers, as they did here.NET VB. NET C. NET Projects Notes. Responsive Ads Here. Draw the block diagram and explain each term used in digital computer. What is Digital Computer? Digital Computer : A digital computer is a programmable machine which read the binary instruction and processes the data which are presented in binary form.
Digital computers are different from analog computers in the sense that analog computer process the analog data. Here the term analog represents continuous data. The digital computer takes the binary data at input, processes according to the set of instructions called program and produces the digital output. The CPU is the brain of a computer where all kind of processing is done.
This unit takes the input data from the input device and processes it according to the set of instruction called program. The major function of CPU is to store the data temporarily in the registers and perform arithmetical and logical computation.
Arithmetical operational on data by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing one set with another and. Memory: memory in a computer is analogous to a notebook where we may note down various things for future reference. This memory is primarily used to store the data and program temporarily during the execution of a program. Data and instructions must enter the system, before any computation can be performed.
It accepts the instructions and data from the outside world. It converts these instructions and data in computer readable form.
Block Diagram of Computer and its Various Components
Output unit: the job of an output unit is just reverse of an input unit, it supplies the information obtained from processed data to the outside world. Accept the result produced by the computer and gives to the outside world. Labels: Computer FundamentalNotes. Location: Bhadohi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Unknown 30 April at Unknown 6 May at Unknown 12 September at So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that performs arithmetic operations at enormous speed.
A computer is an electronic device which is used to perform operation on raw data as per instruction given by user. Like any other device or machine, a computer system has also a number of parts. A computer system can be blocked into mainly three parts:. Input unit — Input unit is a unit that accepts any input device.
The input device is used to input data into the computer system. Function of input unit:.
An electronic circuitry that carries out the instruction given by a computer program. CPU can be sub classified into three parts. It reads instructions from memory and interpretation and changes in a series of signals to activate other parts of the computer.
It controls and co-ordinate is input output memory and all other units. Memory Unit MU - Memory is used to store data and instructions before and after processing. It is used to store data temporary or permanently. Function of CPU. Output Unit — Output unit is a unit that constituents a number of output device.
An output device is used to show the result of processing.
Function of Output unit:. View all articles by VidyaGyaan. I really gain information about computer. Very nice. You fucked man. Ignored this mistake.Building an Analog Computer with Op Amps (Part 2): The Rough Design
It is too good note on Computer memory. It is very helpful. So a number of good notes can hide a mistake. But the notes are really too good and very helpful. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.Communications refers to sending, receiving and processing of information by electrical means, that is it means exchanging information between transmitter and receiver. Source generates message which may be in any form like words, codesymbols, sound signal, images, videos etc.
A transducer is one which converts one form of energy into electrical energy because the message from information source may not be always in electrical form, a transducer is used in between source and transmitter as a separate block sometimes or may be a part of Tx r. In general modulation is said to be the main function of the transmitter. The medium that exists between transmitter and receiver is called as channel. Point to point channels are generally wired channels i.
Microwave links:- these links are used in telephone transmission. In these type of links guided EM waves are used to transmit from Tx r to Rx r. The main function of the receiver is to reproduce the message signal in electrical form from the distorted received signal. This reproduction process is called demodulation or detectionin general this demodulation may be assumed as the reverse process of modulation carried out in transmission.
Most common receiver is superheterodyne receiver. Completed M. Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems and currently working as a faculty. View all posts by Lakshmi Prasanna Ponnala. Skip to content Introduction:- Communications refers to sending, receiving and processing of information by electrical means, that is it means exchanging information between transmitter and receiver.
Processing:- processing is to make that message more suitable for transmission. Transmitter:- Tx r is meant for the following tasks restriction of range of audio frequencies i. Channel:- The medium that exists between transmitter and receiver is called as channel.
Receiver:- The main function of the receiver is to reproduce the message signal in electrical form from the distorted received signal. Email Twitter Facebook LinkedIn. Like this: Like Loading Previous Previous post: Mass Action law. Next Next post: Need for modulation.
What are Digital Computers?
Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.Table of Contents. ADC stands for analog to digital converter. It is an electronic device used for converting an analog signal into a digital signal. The output of ADC is a discrete time and discrete amplitude digital signal. In the real world, every real quantity such as voice, temperature, weight etc exists in the analog state.
And it cannot be processed by any digital device such as a computer or a cell phone. These analog quantities are converted into digital form so that a digital device can process it. This conversion is done using analog to digital converter.
It is an analog value. The conversion from analog signal to a digital signal in an analog to digital converter is explained below using the block diagram given above. The sample block function is to sample the input analog signal at a specific time interval.
The sampling frequency plays important role in the conversion. So it is maintained at a specific rate. The sampling rate is set according to the requirement of the system. It has no function. It only holds the sample amplitude until the next sample is taken.
The hold value remains unchanged till the next sample. This block is used for quantization. It converts the analog or continuous amplitude into discrete amplitude. The encoder block converts the digital signal into binary form i. This is the whole process of converting an Analog signal into digital form using an Analog to Digital Converter. This whole conversion occurs in a microsecond. The analog signal has continuous amplitude. On the other hand, the digital signal has a discrete and finite number of values.
These discrete values are represented using binary numbers bits. To better understand the idea of resolution of ADC. The figure above shows an analog signal represented in a digital form which is either 0 or 1.
This is a 1-bit resolution. Where n is the number of bits. Therefore, there are 2 steps in 1-bit resolution. This figure shows the conversion of analog to digital in 2-bit resolution. There are 4 steps or quantization levels. This figure shows 4-bit resolution.In order to better understand the physical world, it sometimes becomes necessary to use mathematical models to predict the reaction of various physical systems, such as the motion of a mass attached to a spring, to external stimuli, like forcing.
Through the use of differential equations, it becomes possible to accurately model the behavior of such systems. However, to actually see graphical representations of solutions to these models becomes computationally complex. Enter the analog computer. Analog computers, through the use of multipliers, summers, and integrators can quickly and accurately represent the differential equation graphically. In order to model the forced, damped oscillation of a mass attached to a spring, we constructed an analog computer using summers and integrators.
Using the differential equation:. In constructing our computer, we had designed two circuits. Both circuits represented the same differential equation, but the second one turned out to be far superior to the first. Next, we must solve for the particular solution to the original equation. Using the Laplace Transform, we can transform the equation and solve for x L s.
Then using the inverse Laplace Transform, we can solve for x t. Solving this integral will give the solution to the differential equation which the analog computer models. One of the most problematic issues we encountered before we could build any circuits was how to design a reliable integrator. Our first attempt involved the use of only a capacitor as the feedback component of the integrator. The integrator consisted of an input resistance on the order of 10 kilohm to 1 megaohma feedback capacitor.
One problem that resulted from these integrators was the inability of the integrator to hold a waveform for more than a certain amount of time.
The integrator held the proper waveform longer when a square wave was the input and the shortest when a sine wave was an input. Also, the greater the input resistance, the longer the integrator held the waveform. The circuit that held the waveform for the longest consisted if the. This integrator held the following waveforms for the following times:. The integrator could not hold the waveform because the output of the function generator that we used did not have an output of zero for any of the signals.
If it had been, the integrator would have functioned much better. Hence, we started playing around with the circuit and came across what is called a parallel feedback integrator.
A parallel feedback integrator has both a resistor and a capacitor in parallel serving as the mechanism of feedback for the Op-Amp. This integrator gave us a much more stable waveform. For our parallel feedback integrator, we used a 10 megaohm resistor as the input resistor and a 5. Here are the schematics for the two different integrators we tried:. Once we had a stable circuit design, we could move on to modeling the equation with larger circuits. In our first circuit design, we tried to directly implement the circuit, without minimizing it.
Here is the original block diagram of our forced harmonic oscillator.